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This book presents guidelines on quantitative and qualitative measures of the geometric features and imperfections of welds to ensure that it meets the fatigue strength requirements laid out in the recommendations of the IIW (International Institute of Welding). Welds that satisfy these quality criteria can be assessed in accordance with existing IIW recommendations based on nominal stress, structural stress, notch stress or linear fracture mechanics. Further, the book defines more restrictive acceptance criteria based on weld geometry features and imperfections with increased fatigue strength. Fatigue strength for these welds is defined as S-N curves expressed in terms of nominal applied stress or hot spot stress. Where appropriate, reference is made to existing quality systems for welds.In addition to the acceptance criteria and fatigue assessment curves, the book also provides guidance on their inspection and quality control. The successful implementation of these methods depends on adequate training for operators and inspectors alike. As such, the publication of the present IIW Recommendations is intended to encourage the production of appropriate training aids and guidelines for educating, training and certifying operators and inspectors.
This volume describes the current state of our knowledge on the neurobiology of muscle fatigue, with consideration also given to selected integrative cardiorespiratory mechanisms. Our charge to the authors of the various chapters was twofold: to provide a systematic review of the topic that could serve as a balanced reference text for practicing health-care professionals, teaching faculty, and pre-and postdoctoral trainees in the biomedi- cal sciences; and to stimulate further experimental and theoretical work on neurobiology. Key issues are addressed in nine interrelated areas: fatigue of single muscle fibers, fatigue at the neuromuscular junction, fatigue of single motor units, metabolic fatigue studied with nuclear magnetic resonance, fatigue of the segmental motor system, fatigue involving suprasegmental mechanisms, the task dependency of fatigue mechanisms, integrative (largely cardiorespiratory) systems issues, and fatigue of adapted systems (due to aging, under-and overuse, and pathophysiology). The product is a volume that provides compre- of processes that operate from the forebrain to the contractile proteins.
This volume contains a selection of papers presented at Fatigue Design 95 held in Helsinki, Finland from 5-8 September 1995. The papers have been peer reviewed and present practical aspects for the design of components and structures to avoid fatigue failure.
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